CBSE Grade 12 Biology

Reproduction in Organisms

1
Reproduction, a Characteristic Feature of all Organisms
2
Modes of Reproduction – Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
3
Asexual Reproduction
4
Events in Sexual Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

1
Flower Structure
2
Development of Male and Female Gametophytes
3
Pollination – Types, Agencies and Examples
4
Outbreeding Devices
5
Pollen-Pistil Interaction
6
Double Fertilization
7
Post Fertilization Events
8
Development of Endosperm and Embryo
9
Development of Seed and Formation of Fruit
10
Special Modes- Apomixis, Parthenocarpy, Polyembryony
11
Significance of Seed Dispersal and Fruit Formation

Human Reproduction

1
Male and Female Reproductive Systems
2
Microscopic Anatomy of Testis and Ovary
3
Gametogenesis – Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis
4
Menstrual Cycle Fertilisation
5
Embryo Development Upto Blastocyst Formation
6
Implantation
7
Pregnancy and Placenta Formation
8
Parturition Lactation

Reproductive Health

1
Need for Reproductive Health
2
Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
3
Birth Control – Need and Methods
4
Medical Termination of Pregnancy
5
Amniocentesis
6
Infertility and Assisted Reproductive Technologies

Principles of Inheritance and Variation

1
Heredity and Variation
2
Mendelian Inheritance
3
Deviations From Mendelism
4
Incomplete Dominance, Co-Dominance
5
Multiple Alleles and Inheritance of Blood Groups
6
Pleiotropy
7
Elementary Idea of Polygenic Inheritance
8
Chromosome Theory of Inheritance
9
Chromosomes and Genes
10
Linkage and Crossing Over
11
Sex Determination
12
Mutation, Pedigree Analysis
13
Sex Linked Inheritance
14
Haemophilia, Colour Blindness
15
Mendelian Disorders in Humans
16
Chromosomal Disorders in Humans
17
Down’s Syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s Syndromes

Molecular Basis of Inheritance

1
Structure of DNA and RNA
2
DNA Packaging
3
Search for Genetic Material and DNA as Genetic Material
4
DNA Replication Central Dogma
5
Transcription, Genetic Code
6
Translation
7
Gene Expression and Regulation – Lac Operon
8
Human Genome Project
9
DNA Fingerprinting

Evolution

1
Origin of Life
2
Biological Evolution and Evidences for Biological Evolution
3
Adaptive Radiation
4
Biological Evolution: Lamarck’s Theory
5
Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
6
Mechanism of Evolution
7
Natural Selection with Examples
8
Types of Natural Selection
9
Gene Flow and Genetic Drift
10
Hardy – Weinberg’s Principle
11
Brief Account of Evolution
12
Human Evolution

Human Health and Diseases

1
Pathogens
2
Parasites Causing Human Diseases Their Control
3
Basic Concepts of Immunology
4
Adolescence – Drug and Alcohol Abuse

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

1
Animal Husbandry
2
Plant Breeding
3
Tissue Culture
4
Single Cell Protein

Microbes in Human Welfare

1
Microbes in Food Processing
2
Industrial Production, Antibiotics
3
Production and Judicious Use
4
Sewage Treatment
5
Energy Generation and Microbes as Bio-Control Agents
6
Bio-Fertilizers

Biotechnology - Principles and Processes

1
Genetic Engineering – Recombinant DNA Technology

Biotechnology and its Application

1
Application of Biotechnology in Health and Agriculture
2
Genetically Modified Organisms – Bt Crops
3
RNA Interference
4
Human Insulin, Gene Therapy
5
Molecular Diagnosis
6
Transgenic Animals
7
Biosafety Issues, Biopiracy and Patents

Organisms and Populations

1
Organisms and Environment: Habitat and Niche
2
Abiotic Factors, Ecological Adaptations
3
Population Interactions
4
Population Attributes – Growth, Birth Rate and Death Rate, Age Distribution

Ecosystem

1
Ecosystem: Structure and Function
2
Productivity and Decomposition
3
Energy Flow Pyramids of Number
4
Biomass, Energy
5
Nutrient Cycles
6
Ecological Succession
7
Ecological Services – Carbon Fixation, Pollination
8
Seed Dispersal, Oxygen Release

Biodiversity and Conservation

1
Biodiversity – Concept, Levels, Patterns, Importance
2
Loss of Biodiversity
3
Biodiversity Conservation
4
Hotspots, Endangered Organisms
5
Extinction, Red Data Book
6
Sacred Groves, Biosphere Reserves, National Parks, Wildlife, Sanctuaries and Ramsar Sites

Environmental Issues

1
Air Pollution and its Control
2
Water Pollution and its Control
3
Agrochemicals and Their Effects
4
Solid Waste Management
5
Radioactive Waste Management
6
Greenhouse Effect
7
Climate Change Impact and Mitigation
8
Ozone Layer Depletion
9
Deforestation Case Study

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CBSE Grade 12 Biology
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